Consumer Behavior


Consumer Behavior is the study of elements that influence people’s purchasing decisions. Using the data obtained from this study, it is possible to gain a correct understanding of the decision-making process and product selection by consumers, which is effective in marketing decisions to retain current customers and attract new customers.

Factors influencing consumers’ behavior

3 personal, social, and psychological factors influence the purchasing decision of customers:

psychological factors:

Brand perception and exclusivity: Often, consumers’ perception of a brand and brand name affects their purchase type. For example, some people prefer to wear Versace or Louis Vuitton.

Perception and desire to buy the best product: Perception of a brand’s product or service as the best product among competitors is another element that affects consumer behavior. For example, if a person believes that the best laptops in the world belong to the Apple brand, he will probably buy a Mac in his next purchase.

Perceptions and individual thought patterns: In addition to the need to buy a product, the individual’s thought pattern is effective in determining the type of product purchased. For example, to choose a meal, in addition to the need to buy a product due to feeling hungry, the person’s thought pattern about the diet of food is effective in the type of purchase.

Personal factors:

Age: Different age groups are attracted to different types of products.

Gender: Consumer behavior is different based on gender and sexual orientation. Some studies have shown that often, in families, women are the main decision-makers for purchases.

Culture and background: Factors such as religion, nationality, and cultural values play a role in consumer behavior.

Habits, Interests, and Lifestyle: Consumers’ buying habits are usually related to their interests.

social factors:

Interactions in a community-oriented environment: Consumers’ willingness to coordinate with friends, peers, and colleagues are influential in their purchasing decisions.

Income level: The income level and purchasing pattern of consumers are related. People with lower incomes usually buy based on their needs, while people with higher income buy based on their desires.

Living conditions: Living conditions such as ownership or rental of a home or place of residence affect consumers’ purchase decisions.

Family: Family members have a great influence on each other’s buying process. In addition to the influence of parents on the buying behavior of minors, children also influence the buying behavior of adults.

In addition to the 3 factors mentioned, two factors the place of purchase (online and offline store) and the method of payment (cash, credit, and internet) affect consumer behavior.

Types of consumer buying behavior: 

In general, there are 4 main types of consumer behavior:

Complex Buying Behavior: Complex buying behavior occurs when a person buys an expensive and rare product; Like a house or a car. In this type of shopping, consumers are heavily involved in the buying process and researching the differences between brands.

Dissonance-Reducing Buying Behavior: This type of buying behavior occurs when a person is heavily involved in buying a product. But it is difficult to accurately distinguish between different brands. And the consumer is worried that after choosing the product, he will regret his purchase. The best example to understand this is buying an engagement ring.

Habitual Buying Behavior: Habitual buying behavior is related to purchases that happen regularly, but the consumer is not emotionally attached to a particular brand; such as bread, milk, eggs, etc.

Variety-Seeking Buying Behavior: Variety-seeking buying behavior is done by people who are willing to try new products. This interest in testing new products is not due to dissatisfaction with the previous purchase; Like buying perfume with a different scent or buying a new toothpaste.

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